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An extra-heterochromatin present on the both arms of the male chromosomes is considered to be sex determinant (Siljak-Yakovlev et al. Historically, an improved breeding program is lacking due to presence of low genetic diversity as simple and perfect method for gender differentiation before first flowering was absent (Aberlenc-Bertossi et al. The sex chromosomes existence in date palm on the basis of cytological studies was proposed with chromomycin staining, however, the genes associated with sex have not been determined Siljak-Yakovlev et al. Similarly, the process of developmental stages that arrest the sterile sex organs has not been studied in detail.
Using cytological and biochemical means, they concluded that there is no significant difference between male and female individuals and genetically its an important task to discriminate the sex agronomically in monoecious and dioecious species due to the longevity.
Such a technique will not only facilitate the screening of gender at early developmental stage but also could be most important for speeding up breeding and, thereby, saving of time, cost and other resources.
The recent techniques offer a new tool for genetic characterization and linkage maps construction with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).However, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding.In this study, we have identified the sex-specific DNA markers for date palm cultivars using microsatellites.Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis.Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5–10 years).